An Open Letter To A Witch

An Open Letter To A Witch

I do not know what tradition you follow. That does not matter. Indeed, for all I know, you may not follow any of the traditions. You may be one of those lonely ones who, for whatever reason, must worship by “feel’ rather than through any formal coven training or participation. But whoever you are, and however you worship, all that matters to me is that you hold true to the Goddess and the God. My purpose in writing this letter is to enjoin your aid in destroying that which cripples our Craft. Dissension is the disease. It is not a cancer, for it can be cured; and, as with most herbal cures, the best treatment is that administered internally.

Friend, help spread the Brotherhood and Sisterhood of the Craft. Do not seek to establish a scale of Wicca purism, (for no two Witches will ever agree on the relative positions on the scale of even their own tradition.) There is no one religion for all people, and THERE IS NO ONE TRADITION FOR ALL WITCHES! Let this be understood, and accepted. Choose your own path and let your neighbor choose his or hers. Remember the primary tenet: “AN YE HARM NONE, DO AS YE WILL.”

Yet never forget:”An ye harm none…” If your path leads to sex rites, to homosexuality, to phallic-initiation… do not put it forward as “THE WICCAN WAY”. It is only A Wiccan way, one of MANY. And by the same token, if a path so presented is not your way, do not decry it simply because it is not your way. Who are you to say another is wrong, so long as it harms none.

Strive for honesty, friend. Do not make false Craft claims, whether of position, heredity, lineage, or whatever. If you have a quarrel with someone, seek out the one you disagree with, rather than utilize perhaps unreliable intermediaries. Do not spread unfound rumors and question those who do so. News of battle makes more exciting reading than news of peace. Why, then, provide battle news for publication when the serenity of the Craft is what we should be showing?

We have come a long way, friend, in a few short years. Let us move along our chosen paths till we emerge- as we will- accepted and respected by ALL as a religion in our own right.

Help us bring an end to washing our dirty linen in public. There will always be disagreements. There will always be those who cannot tolerate others, but they are in the minority and so they should remain, if you wish. But do not deny them their right to those differences.

Friend, we are Children of the Universe, and Children of the Goddess and the God. Let us remember that, and live in Peace.

Blesses Be, and Merry Part!

Eclectic Wicca

Eclectic Wicca

By , Guide

Eclectic Wicca is an all-purpose term applied to NeoWiccan traditions that don’t fit into any specific definitive category. Many solitary Wiccans follow an eclectic path, but there are also covens that consider themselves eclectic. A coven or individual may use the term “eclectic” for a variety of reasons. For example:

  • A group or solitary may use a blend of beliefs and practices from several different pantheons and traditions.
  • A group could be an offshoot of an established tradition of Wicca, such as Gardnerian or Alexandrian, but with modifications to their practice that make them no longer that original tradition.
  • An individual may be creating his or her own tradition of beliefs and practices, and because this system can’t be defined as something else, it can be defined as eclectic.
  • A solitary may be practicing what he or she has learned from publicly available sources on Wicca, but not be using oathbound, initiatory material, and so recognizes that his or her practice is eclectic.

Because there is often disagreement about who is Wiccan and who isn’t, there can be confusion regarding existing lineaged Wiccan traditions, and newer eclectic traditions. Some would say that only those lineaged covens are permitted to call themselves Wiccan, and that anyone who claims to be eclectic is, by definition, not Wiccan but Neowiccan. Bear in mind that the term Neowiccan simply means someone who practices a newer form of Wicca, and is not meant to be derogatory or insulting.

Lighten Up – Coven Getting Older?

You Know Your Coven’s Getting Older When…

The ritual feast is pureed.

Last Beltaine the coven decided it would be nice to go out to dinner to celebrate.

The last time you tried to do a spiral dance your oxygen feeds got tangled.

Viagra is kept in the coven supplies.

The maiden of the coven is a grandmother.

The ritual room is outfitted with defibrillators.

The coveners drive their RV’s to Scottsdale for Mabon.

When you are at a festival you go to bed at sunset.

It takes the whole coven to move the cauldron.

The high priest still has a vendetta going against Richard Nixon.

You find yourself using your pendulum over the stock pages in the newspaper.

You tell an initiate that in your day you had to slog through five feet of snow uphill both ways when you did a Yule ritual.

You drop your teeth in the ritual cup.

At Samhain you see more of your coveners in the Wild Hunt than you do in circle.

You put your athame in the chalice during ritual but you can’t remember why.

You hold an all night blow-out drum frenzy and none of your neighbors noticed.

You use  Glenn Miller  records for trance music.

All of your ritual robes are tie-dyed

Your coven has a 401(k) retirement plan.

A nitro pill vial replaces the crystal on your pendant.

No one’s successfully jumped the Beltaine fire since 1983.

When the coven sings, “Creak and groan, creak and groan . . .”

When you set comfy chairs around the circle.

When you sit on the floor and can’t get up again.

You do anointings with Aspercreme.

The oak tree your coven planted died of old age.

You use Bran Muffins and Prune Juice for Cakes & Ale because you need the extra fiber.

You don’t use salt to consecrate you altar because you need to stay away from extra sodium.

You use a walker during the Wild Hunt

You prefer to rent a Hall for rituals because the bathrooms are closer.

You need a flashlight to find the candles.

Celtic Wicca (Church of Wicca)

Celtic Wicca (Church of Wicca)

The Church of Wicca was founded by Gavin and Yvonne Frost. They offer correspondence courses in their brand of Wicca, which is sometimes called Celtic Wicca. The Church of Wicca has just recently begun including a Goddess in their diety structure, and has been very patrofocal as Wiccan traditions go. The Chuch of Wicca terms itself “Baptist Wicca”

*The Frosts call their tradition of Wicca Celtic. To me it seems more of a mixture of high magic and eclectic Wicca, with a smattering of Celtic thrown in. For instance, they use three circles, one within the others, made of salt, sulphur and herbs with runes and symbols between them instead of just one circle. They also insist on a white- handled athame and will not have a black handled one, whereas all the other traditions I have heard or read about use a black handled one. It seems to me the Wicca they practice and teach should not be called Celtic at all; but since a lot of it is made up or put together by them from other traditions they should also give it a made-up name; say Frostism. If you DON’T have to pay for the course, and have some extra time, it would probably be worth reading just for comparison. [*From Circe, who took their correspondence course.]

The Frosts have always been rather more public than most traditions (advertising their course in the Enquirer and similar publications) which has earned them heavy criticism in less public Craft groups.



There are many different traditions or branches of the Wicca. These depend upon
the original location of each coven’s ancestors within the area known as Western
and Insular Europe. Each is different in many ways — the way in which the
rituals are performed, the wear (or lack of wear) within the circle, the
language which is spoken within the circle, the system of training, the symbols
used, etc. All are the same in that they honor the Deities of Nature, live by
the philosophy of “Harm none and do what you will,” believe in reincarnation,
and have the knowledge of working a specific form of magick.

There are many so-called “courses” on “How to become a Witch” ranging in price
from a dollar to several hundred dollars, none of which are enlightening to the
well read, nor do they reveal any of the secrets of the Wicca. For the curious,
perhaps, they can be of benefit – for the serious, they are at most worthless,
and more often than not, dangerous and inaccurate.

The following are brief descriptions of the various traditions within Wicca:

GARDNERIAN – A branch of Wicca deriving its name from Gerald B.Gardner who was
initiated into a coven of Witches in the New Forest in Britain and who helped
greatly in the advancement of the truth about Wicca by his love for it and his
writings on the subject. It is inherently Celtic in origin encompassing rituals
as practiced in Southern England. Ritual nudity is required at all times.

TRADITIONAL – Many branches of the Craft which claim to be pre-Gardnerian.
This covers a lot of territory, again depending upon the area of origin (i.e.,
Wales, Scotland, Ireland, etc.). Ritual nudity is sometimes required. Some
groups are strictly robed.

ALEXANDRIAN – A branch in Wicca deriving its name from Alexander Sanders. This
is a form of Gardnerian Wicca (rather, a form which “borrowed” much of
Gardnerianism). It is very ceremonial, encompassing much of Quabalistic magick,
etc. Ritual nudity plays a part but it is not required, the choice being left to
the individual Witch.

CONTINENTAL – This can be put under the heading of “Traditional,” again
depending upon origin (France, Germany, Spain, Basque, etc.).

STREGERIA – This can be put under the heading of “Continental.” It is
Witchcraft as practiced in Italy and Sicily, each area of Italy and Sicily
practicing according to their own folk-tradition. These are extremely
secretive peoples, but much can be learned about them by reading Leland’s

HEREDITARY – Pockets of Hereditary Witches do exist in Europe and America,
carrying on their family traditions. They are usually the most secretive,
preferring to work alone or only within their families. Their form of
Witchcraft is almost entirely different than what we know as Wicca.

DIANIC – This branch of Wicca lays a great stress on the Goddess, sometimes
entirely ignoring Her Horned Consort. I do not know much about them, but they
seem to be similar to Gardnerian (or vice versa). Perhaps this was the
original tradition that Gerald Gardner was initiated into.

Gardnerian group founded by a Californian named Aidan Kelly. They are a
beautiful and idealistic form of the Wicca, constantly researching into our
ancient heritage.

AMERICAN-CELTIC – Perhaps the largest and fastest growing form of Wicca in
America originating out of the Twin City area (Minneapolis-St.Paul). Their form
is akin to Gardnerian, though ritual nudity is not required by all of their

Two of the newest branches of the Craft are the SEAX-WICCA, formulated by Dr.
Raymond Buckland (formerly a Gardnerian), based upon the religion of the Saxons.
It is a unique system which has eliminated the Degrees and operates upon a
democratic level. Unlike other traditions, non-initiates are permitted at times
to witness the rituals. The other of the two is simply called WICCA and was
formulated by Edmund M. Buczynski from nine ….years of study and research into
pre-Celtic and Celtic religions. It also is operated upon a democratic level.
However, the three degrees have been kept as well as ritual nudity. Only
initiates are permitted to attend meetings.

There are many other groups, many are “underground” and shun any publicity. Most
are small and isolated (like the BOREADS, a lovely tradition who call themselves
the “children of the north wind”). The fact remains that all of these groups are
legitimate representatives of Wicca in the world today.

WELSH TRADITIONAL – This is a Celtic-derived tradition which incorporates the
teachings and mythology and traditions of Ancient Wales. There is a large group
at present in Georgia, California, and New York.

MINOAN BROTHERHOOD AND SISTERHOOD – These groups are worshippers of the Cretan
snake goddess whose holy priests and priestesses were historically homosexual.
The Brotherhood and Sisterhood meet separately at the Esbats, but meet together
at Sabbats.

Becoming a High Priest/ess

Becoming a High Priest/ess

Author: Valerie Voigt

Beginnings: I practiced for a while as a solitary for some years before beginning training with a family tradition Witch in 1978. She saw to my initiation in 1981 (as an eclectic, albeit with traditional background: this because I was not marrying into her family) . She told me to found a Coven, which I did, with her to guide me. After she crossed over to the Summerland, I later studied the Feri tradition, and was initiated by Victor and Cora Anderson in the mid ’80’s. Feri as I learned it is a non-degree Tradition, though some teachers use a quasi-degree system to give their students training benchmarks. I was initiated into a Gardnerian Coven in the late 80’s, and was raised to 3rd degree in 2008. I’ve been running Covens and/or training circles and/or open circles almost all the time since 1981. I continue to study. I lead the Gardnerian Coven Blackbirds.

In my Covens, we’ve always made a distinction between the High Priest/ess of the Coven itself (that’s an ongoing role with responsibilities to the group, and to the daughter Covens, and to the larger Pagan community) and the High Priest/ess of any particular ritual (that role is temporary and includes responsibility only for running that ritual) . Most of the time, the High Priest/ess of the Coven also High Priest/esses the rituals too; but we do require everyone, as part of their training, to design and perform both private group rituals and semi-public community Sabbat rituals.

One reason for a lot of the confusion over terminology is that the terms “priest/ess” and “high priest/ess” are used in multiple ways even within the older Traditions. To wit:

In most of the British Traditions (which I will, for the purposes of the present discussion, define as the Gardnerian Tradition and those Traditions with a clear genetic relationship to it, e.g., Alexandrian, Mohsian, Silver Crescent, etc.) every First Degree initiate is ritually announced to be a “Witch and Priest/ess.” Why, and what does this mean, exactly?

The “why” is twofold.

Firstly, it makes it harder for someone to infiltrate a Coven for the Inquisition and then turn around, turn the Coven in, and get away without any suspicion from the Inquisitors (after all, if any other spies have happened to see the initiation, it will be harder for someone to talk their way out of an accusation if the spies say, “I saw this person ordained as clergy in this religion!”) . Granted, by the founding of the Gardnerian tradition as we have it now, the Inquisition was no longer the threat it had formerly been (it does still exist–it’s now called the Office for the Defense of the Faith, and the current Pope used to head it–but it is much reduced in power and fame, and has softened its methods) . The British Witchcraft Act, however, had still not been repealed–and the legal implications and practical dangers of being publicly discovered as a Witch were very real, and not funny.

Secondly, and more importantly these days, as a Priest/ess you are directly responsible for continuing to pursue your own spiritual development, for listening to the Gods (not just praying to them or asking for Their help) , and for taking control of your own life and accepting and dealing with whatever responsibilities the Gods send.

It is in this latter sense that the widespread idea that “Every Witch (or even every Pagan) is a priest/ess” is true. In a way, “priest/ess” is a courtesy title, given to remind the newly initiated Witch of their responsibility–it does not qualify one to lead a group. It does, however, give notice of the responsibility to fulfill whatever obligations may arise (for example, in time of need, the person might have to step up to higher responsibilities in full knowledge of their own weaknesses) . In such cases, when the person shoulders such responsibility honestly and without pretension, the Gods always provide Their help.

As to what it means:

A First Degree initiate should, at least nowadays, be competent to perform their own rituals, on their own behalf–an activity that requires the basic priestly knowledge of how ritual works, including whatever details are required within their Tradition.

Likewise, in some of these same British Traditions, every Second Degree initiate is ritually announced to be a “Witch and High Priest/ess.” Again–why, and what does this mean, exactly?

There is some “courtesy” aspect to the title, as a Second Degree is not expected, routinely, to lead a Coven. Nonetheless, a Second Degree is expected to be able to lead rituals for the Coven. That is, s/he is able to competently fulfill the ritual role (if not necessarily the administrative, counseling, etc. etc. roles) of a Coven leader. If the regular High Clergy of the Coven must be absent for any reason, it falls to the ranking Coveners (who are typically Second Degree) to carry out the ritual duties. In some cases, a Second Degree will actually lead a Coven (normally under the guidance of the High Priest/ess of the parent Coven) –in this case, “High Priest/ess” is no longer a courtesy title!

Even in these British Traditions, however, the word “High Priest/ess, ” used in normal conversation, refers to a permanent Coven leader, who is always Third Degree.

Because, traditionally, Wiccan clergy are unpaid, most of us have full-time jobs that are not connected with religion–we are secretaries, engineers, factory workers, or whatever. Therefore, in most cases we have not had professional clergy training aside from what our own Elders, with the same limitations, were able to teach us. So, typically only the independently wealthy among us have the leisure to pursue a full-time ministry, or the professional training that allows them to do most aspects of the job well. How many independently wealthy Pagans do you know? I thought so.

As a result, our High Clergy usually have to specialize in only one or two of the jobs clergy are expected to do: administration, ritual, counseling, theurgy, thaumaturgy, teaching, herbology, divination, interfaith work, writing, public speaking, outreach, theology, social work–there’s probably a lot more. We simply do not have the time and resources to be good at more than a small subset of these tasks. Few Craft clergy are good at most of these–and almost all those with deep expertise in many of them have very gray hair, because they have had to learn by long years of experience. It’s not that our own teachers were lacking: but often their own talents were different from ours, so most of us have had to supplement our in-Coven training with outside studies. Sometimes we have the good fortune to learn from several different Craft teachers (I have been incredibly lucky in this regard) . Usually we have to supplement our training in other ways, such as by attending sessions at conferences such as PantheaCon, or taking evening classes in a specialty such as counseling.

The point I’m making here is that even talented, very well-trained Traditional High Priest/esses aren’t usually good at all of the tasks we associate with the job.

In less traditional Covens (including most of the eclectic ones I have known) , the title “High Priest/ess” is still usually given to a Coven leader. In those Covens that adhere to a strictly non-hierarchical approach, the term may not be used at all, or sometimes the term will be used only in its ritual sense–that is, ritual responsibilities are rotated amongst all the Coven members, and whoever is in charge of a particular ritual is “High Priest/ess” for the duration of that ritual only.

(This last use of the term “High Priest/ess” is startling to most Traditionalists, who, as Mike Nichols puts it, “would no more rotate the position of High Priestess in their Coven than they would rotate the position of mother in their family.”)

Like many others here, I have run into my share of kids who have read one book, have adopted a Craft name such as “Merlin” or “Ain Soph” (yes, really!) , and are running around calling themselves High Priest/ess. I usually manage to keep a straight face.

Unless there is good reason, I don’t confront them about it–and if I must confront them, I usually do so indirectly. For example, if I am at a gathering and some clearly unqualified self-appointed “High Priest/ess” is gathering a group of naive prospective students around his/herself–prospective students whom, according to my understanding of my Oaths, I must protect insofar as I can–I join the conversation and ask some question. For example, “How do you feel that elemental correspondences are affected by local geography?” or “How do you approach invocatory Work in your Tradition?” I continue the conversation until the pretender has clearly revealed him/herself. I never say, “You don’t have a clue!” because I don’t have to: they show it. And I don’t scold–there’s no need to humiliate anyone. They just need to be given pause to consider the need to learn more.

Most of the time, though, the Gods seem to take care of it. How? Well, if the person is just clueless and seeking ego-strokes, They usually provide the person with some embarrassing experience (such as freezing up in a group ritual, having to consult their one book, and discovering that the answer they need is not in the book) . On the other hand, if underneath the ego-indulgence the person really has the potential, sometimes the Gods simply dump a lot of responsibilities on the person and force them to handle the situation! I myself have seen this happen. In such cases, I encourage more experienced Coven leaders to give careful and discreet help to the chagrined-but-suddenly-serious person who is trying to be responsible. Why? Because there are far too many more Pagan seekers trying to find teachers than there are qualified teachers to teach them–and if the Gods show me someone who is truly and honestly trying to step up to the plate, it is my duty to help if I can.

I normally do not encourage teens to jump into the Craft, because serious pursuit of Craft studies requires so much time and energy: youngsters should be out having fun, discovering their identities, and exploring a lot of different things. So I tell them they should read widely, be careful, and check back as adults if they are still interested. But teenagers are not automatically unqualified to study, or even to lead a Coven: one Craft Elder for whom I have always had great respect first learned the Craft as a teen in the 1940’s, in an all-teen Coven led by a teenaged brother-sister pair. When the teenaged coveners had questions, the High Priest and High Priestess sometimes didn’t know the answers and had to go ask their parents–who were High Priest and High Priestess of a traditional Coven.

Likewise, I suspect that my own two daughters, who both grew up in the Craft, could readily run Covens: one is now 25, and the other is 19. But both, having seen for themselves how much work is involved, have so far declined.

I never sought to be a High Priestess–I had expected to simply be a quiet Pagan who did supportive behind-the-scenes work. And if I had known how much work (both in the sense of magical/spiritual Work and elbow-grease-type work) was involved, I probably would have run screaming–at least until the Gods dragged me back. Because if They want you, you don’t, in the end, have much choice about it!

To have the title of High Priest/ess, all you have to do is call yourself one. To actually be a High Priest/ess, you have to do the work. The title, by itself, isn’t a goal; at best, it’s really just a side effect.

Blessed Be!

Understanding Magickal Royalty: Witch Queen / Witch King

Understanding Magickal Royalty: Witch Queen / Witch King

Author: Lady Abigail

Recently during one of my classes on the history within our magickal traditions, a question came up about levels and degrees of hierarchy found in Witchcraft and Wicca. Within these, is there a title or position wherein someone is called Witch Queen or Witch King.

First of all: YES!

This is a real term, older than recorded time. It does not matter what the word is you use King, Queen, Sovereign, Master, Elder Lord or Lady; these are each equal titles given to someone that is held in a place of greatest honor within the traditions of magick, spell crafting and the old ways and traditions. It is not a self-professed degree. You have to have worked for years with many other teachers and traditions of understanding. The Wise Ones and the Elders must first teach you. Then you become a teacher in your own right to achieve these levels.

If you work as a solitary this will not be an issue. But if you are in a group that works within a degree system you may decide you want to move forward within this group as an Elder, teacher or someday leader yourself. Not all traditions follow a degree system. It depends on the specific tradition you follow and what requirements there are within that group.

A Witch Queen is a High Priestess (of third degree depending on traditions) within a coven that has had a certain number of hives that have formed independent covens under which the Queen oversees. The hiving can be either from growth or from desire.
The title “Witch Queen” is not a rank. It is given in honor and with respect to those of aged wisdom. We give this title to those of great knowledge that work to share our beliefs within the light and truth.

The title shows dedication, wisdom and heart of commitment. A pledge is then given freely and witnessed by Elders, Priest and Priestesses as well as other Witch Queens and Kings. This can be difficult when these traditions are so personal and held in great secretary within all traditions.

To receive the title Witch Queen, you must be a High Priestess (HPS) of the third degree or higher. Depending on the tradition, the second level may be required (5 to 13 years training) . From there, you must have taught and trained several students who have reached the level of High Priest or High Priestess of the third degree (10 to 20 years +) and have subsequently hived themselves unto their own independent covens, clans or groves. During all this work, study, time, teaching and subsequent hiving and growth, you must be maintaining your own personal working coven without question or falter, maintaining all the wisdom in its continued teaching and training therein.

In other words, you must have at least five working covens that have hived from your group. These Covens must be in good standing as working covens holding to their teachings and traditions. Yet you must continue to be a strong leader within your personal Coven. As Priest or Priestess within your group you must be teaching, training, and upholding the daily responsibilities. In addition to these duties you must be ready, willing and able to deal with any circumstances that may arise within those Covens that have hived from you and look to you for guidance.

To receive the Title of “Witch Queen” can take anywhere from 13 years to a lifetime. Please note: That 13 years to achieve the honor of Witch Queen is very rare even if you are truly doing all that must be done.

How it works:

Once you have studied and trained within a Coven to receive the title of High Priestess of the third degree (this takes 5 years or longer) , you must ask your Coven HPS permission to hive. If it is agreed, you begin to work towards this goal. As an Elder and HPS within your Mother Coven, you will train with your Coven High Priestess for a year and a day. You will begin to find and teach students that will be a part of your group when you hive off from your Mother Coven or Hive.

(To hive, it is best to have at least four students who have reached the level of first degree under your instruction. Those whom have trained with you within the Mother Coven as you prepare to separate into an independent group.)

Once your Coven is formed and independently working from the Mother Coven, the work truly begins. You must labor to keep your group active and growing. In this, you may have members that desire to learn and grow and become leaders. So you will teach and work with them unto this goal, while also teaching and working with new members and the community. No Coven can be made up of only leaders; there must be students and seekers to make it whole.

Once you have established your own working Coven independent unto itself you are ready to begin. You must teach and train five members of your Coven unto the level of third degree High Priestess or Priest; that have started working with their own groups independent of the Mother Coven. This will not and cannot happen all at once. While teaching these members, and during the hivings, you must still maintain your personal working Coven outside these members and all the time maintaining your group while teaching and working within the community.

Once you have at least five members that have hived to create their own active, working covens, (which have not withdrawn themselves from your coven in any way that would cause turmoil or malice to enter) then and only then, you may request that your Mother Coven’s High Priestess recognize you as a “Witch Queen” within your own right. This is how the cycle continues and we grow as a community.

The title “Witch Queen” is given to honor those who have dedicated their lives to the continued understanding of who we are within the community as a whole and unto those seeking understanding of our beliefs.

“Witch Queen” is not an entitlement one can give oneself. It comes from hard work and knowing that this life is a gift that must now and always be shared.
To be a “Witch Queen” shows that you will continually work, teach and train others; working as a teacher, advisor, elder and/or councilor.

“Witch King”: So do we have Witch Kings? I am not sure why we don’t hear as much about the male side of this coin. Those who have reached the honor of being a Witch Queen are rare. I have to imagine that Witch Kings are just as rare.
I can tell you the terms I have heard. I believe them to be equal; both Witch King and Witch Queen are terms we give to those we know of knowledge, wisdom and honor.

Witch King is the best known of the titles. But I have also heard the term Master Witch. Both being rare and seldom used. I think the Master Witch today sounds too much like a video or computer game. (This may be why we don’t hear it used.)

Because we don’t hear a lot about a Witch Kings is not to say they are not around. Like myself it is the honor we hold not the scepter. We don’t wear signs that state, “I am King or I am Queen.” We are generally known in our circles and by those we love and trust. Occasionally we share the information with others to teach, and to explain why we should all keep striving to be more.

The title “Witch King” is given to honor those who have dedicated their lives to the continued understanding of who we are within the community as a whole and unto those seeking understanding of our beliefs.

“Witch King” is not an entitlement one can give oneself. It comes from hard work and knowing that this life is a gift that must now, and always, be shared.

To be a “Witch King” shows that you will continually work, teach and train others, be this as an advisor, elder and/or councilor in and outside the traditional Coven workings.

* NOTE: I understand from history the mundane world decided to believe that male was stronger than female, somehow better. Like in history; first we had the Goddess. She was strong, full of love and life. She was the giver of life and the cycle of creation found in Life and Death. Later we find balance in both the God and the Goddess as they worked together in balance. Then man decided this was not to be. Man was the master and in this he tried to destroy the Goddess saying we needed only one God. To seek the female energy would be a sin and bring death to those who worshiped Her.

During these changes in history, society began to believe that man should rule over woman in all things. Therein, a King should rule or stand over a Queen. She became somehow less than he. We in the Pagan world understand this will just not work. We have both Priestesses and our Priest. We may stand together or alone, but we stand as equals in the balance of female and male. Those who study history along with the old ways understand this to be true.

I think this may be why we have so few that stand proudly in these old traditions of pride within our beliefs. It is not that we do not find honor in the titles of who we are, Witch Queen or/and Witch King. We are somehow put off by the way others see them. Yet if we don’t teach those walking the path anew, who will teach those how come later.

I have pride in who I am, what I have accomplished and those I teach. I know in my heart that they shall carry forward into the next generations the truth with wisdom and honor.

Blessed Shall They Be.

Lady Abigail
High Priestess Ravensgrove Coven
Greenfield, IN
Copyright © 01252010

The Book of Shadows

The Book of Shadows

Most Wiccan traditions treasure a Book of Shadows. Such books are rarely
published or even shown to non-initiates. In them, the Tradition’s specific
beliefs and modes of worship are thoroughly or sketchily outlined. Though
contents and organization of these ritual manners vary, most Books of Shadows
include instructions for the circle casting and banishing; religious rituals;
the consecration of tools; laws; coven organizational notes magical rites;
prayers and perhaps herbal lore. Some contain lists of the Traditions
pantheon, training exercises for new students and, finally, initiation

Such books are vitally important to the establishment and maintenance of all
Wiccan traditions, for without them, the tradition’s specific rites and other
lore must be carefully memorized and passed down by word of mouth. This always
leaves room for error, misinterpretation, and even loss of the material. Don’t
misunderstand this: no Wiccan tradition has been able to record every single bit
of information. Much is verbally passed from teacher to student. Still a
tradition’s Book of Shadows provides and unchanging guide and memory trigger for
the practitioner.

There are many different Books of Shadows today. Some are used by hundreds of
Thousands of Wiccans. Others are created by Solitary Wiccans and never shown to

Information from Living Wicca: A Further Guide for the Solitary Practitioner by
Scott Cunningham

To me the Book of Shadows is a very special book. Mostly because it is innermost
thoughts that come from your heart and soul As you study and Learn you will fill
that book up with all kinds of things from Spells to Thoughts, To just writing
how you are feeling about things. And it doesn’t matter what kind of book of
shadows you have whether it is a three ringed binder to a home made book. How
you wish to organize your Book of shadows is up to you. Just make sure that you
put as much love and care into as you do yourself. Cause that will always be a
very special and important book in this Life’s Path. And May the Goddess Shine
Brightly in your Heart for Always.


13 Reasons Air should be in the North
by Mike Nichols
copyright 1989 by Mike Nichols


It all started 20 years ago. I was 16 years old then, and a recent initiate to
the religion of Wicca. Like most neophytes, I was eager to begin work on my Book
of Shadows, the traditional manuscript liturgical book kept by most practicing
Witches. I copied down rituals, spells, recipes, poems, and tables of
correspondences from every source I could lay hands on. Those generally fell
into two broad categories: published works, such as the many books available on
Witchcraft and magic; and unpublished works, mainly other Witches’ Books of

Twenty years ago, most of us were “traditional” enough to copy everything by
hand. (Today, photocopying and even computer modem transfers are becoming de
rigueur.) Always, we were admonished to copy “every dot and comma”, making an
exact transcription of the original, since any variation in the ceremony might
cause major problems for the magician. Seldom, if ever, did anyone pause to
consider where these rituals came from in the first place, or who composed them.
Most of us, alas, did not know and did not care. It was enough just to follow
the rubrics and do the rituals as prescribed.

But something brought me to an abrupt halt in my copying frenzy. I had dutifully
copied rituals from different sources, and suddenly realized they contained
conflicting elements. I found myself comparing the two versions, wondering which
one was “right”, “correct”, “authentic”, “original”, “older”, etc. This gave
rise to the more general questions about where a ritual came from in the first
place. Who created it? Was it created by one person or many? Was it ever
altered in transmission? If so, was it by accident or intent? Do we know? Is
there ever any way to find out? How did a particular ritual get into a Coven’s
Book of Shadows? From another, older, Book of Shadows? Or from a published
source? If so, where did the author of the published work get it?

I had barely scratched the surface, and yet I could already see that the
questions being raised were very complex. (Now, all these years later, I am
more convinced than ever of the daunting complexity of Neo-Pagan liturgical
history. And I am equally convinced of the great importance of this topic for a
thorough understanding of modern Witchcraft. It may well be a mare’s nest, but
imagine the value it will have to future Craft historians. And you are
unconditionally guaranteed to see me fly into a passionate tirade whenever I’m
confronted with such banal over-simplifications as “Crowley is the REAL author
of the Third Degree initiation,” or “Everyone KNOWS Gardner INVENTED modern

Conflicting Traditions

The first time I noticed conflicting ritual elements was when I was invited as a
guest to attend another Coven’s Esbat celebration. When the time came to “invoke
the Watchtowers” (a ritual salutation to the four directions), I was amazed to
learn that this group associated the element of Earth with the North. My own
Coven equated North with Air. How odd, I thought. Where’d they get that? The
High Priestess told me it had been copied out of a number of published sources.
Further, she said she had never seen it listed any other way. I raced home and
began tearing books from my own library shelves. And sure enough! Practically
every book I consulted gave the following associations as standard: North =
Earth, East = Air, South = Fire, West = Water.

Then where the heck did I get the idea that Air belonged in the North? After
much thought, I remembered having copied my own elemental/directional
associations from another Witch’s Book of Shadows, her Book representing (so she
claimed) an old Welsh tradition. Perhaps I’d copied it down wrong? A quick
long-distance phone call put my mind at ease on that score. (When I asked her
where she’d gotten it, she said she THOUGHT it was from an even older Book of
Shadows, but she wasn’t certain.)

By now, I felt miffed that my own tradition seemed to be at variance with most
published sources. Still, my own rituals didn’t seem to be adversely affected.
Nor were those of my fellow Coven members, all of whom put Air in the North.
Further, over the years I had amassed lots of associations and correspondences
that seemed to REQUIRE Air to be in the North. The very thought of Air in the
East offended both my sense of reason and my gut-level mythic sensibilities.
There are good REASONS to place Air in the North. And the whole mythological
superstructure would collapse if Air were in the East, instead. If this is so,
then why do most published sources place Earth in the North and Air in the East?


Ritual Tampering

Suddenly, I felt sure I knew the reason! Somewhere along the line, someone had
deliberately tampered with the information! Such tampering is a long and
venerable practice within certain branches of magic. In Western culture, it is
most typically seen among Hermetic, Cabalistic and “ceremonial” magic lodges.
It is common among such groups that, when publishing their rituals for public
consumption, they will publish versions that are INCOMPLETE and/or deliberately
ALTERED in some way from the authentic practice. This prevents someone who is
NOT a member of the group from simply buying a book, and performing the rituals,
without benefit of formal training. It is only when you are initiated into the
lodge that you will be given the COMPLETE and/or CORRECTED versions of their
rituals. This is how such groups guard their secrets. (And it is a telling
postscript that many scholars now believe modern Witchcraft to have “borrowed”
its directional/elemental correspondences from ceremonial magic sources! What a
laugh if this was Crowley’s last best joke on his friend Gerald Gardner!)

I remember the first time I became aware of such deliberate ritual tampering. A
friend of mine had been making a study of the so-called “planetary squares”,
talismans that look like magic squares consisting of a grid of numbers in some
cryptic order. There are seven such squares — one for each of the “old”
planets. While making this study, he began coloring the grids (more for his own
pleasure than anything else), making colorful mini-mosaics, using first two
colors, then three, then four, and on up to the total number of squares in the
grid. Six of the planetary squares yielded pleasing patterns of color. Then
there was the Sun square! Against all expectation, the colors were a random
jumble, with no patterns emerging. Thus, he began his quest for the CORRECTED
Sun square. And I became convinced of the reality of ritual tampering.


The Watchtowers

All that remains, then, is for me to assemble all the arguments in favor of the
Air-in-the-North model, which I have now come to believe is the CORRECTED system
of correspondences. The remainder of this article will be devoted to those
arguments, each with its own name and number:
1. AIRTS: This is perhaps the strongest argument. In Celtic countries, the four
elemental /directional associations are referred to as the “four airts”. And it
is a known fact that this tradition associates Air with North. While it is true
that some writers, familiar with ceremonial magic (like William Sharp and Doreen
Valiente), have given “tampered” versions of the airts, it is a telling point
that folklorists working directly with native oral traditions (like Alexander
Carmichael and F. Marian McNeill) invariably report the Air/North connection.

2. PARALLEL CULTURES: Although arguing from parallel cultures may not be as
convincing, it is still instructive to examine other magical aboriginal cultures
in the Western hemisphere. For example, the vast majority of Native American
tribes (themselves no slouches in the area of magic!) place Air in the North,
which they symbolize by the Eagle. (Aboriginal cultures lying south of the
equator typically have different associations, for reasons I will discuss next.)

3. GEOPHYSICAL: If one accepts the insular British origins of elemental
directions, then one must imagine living in the British Isles. To the West is
the vast expanse of the Atlantic Ocean (i.e. water). To the East, the bulk of
the European land mass (earth). South has always been the direction of fire
because, as one travels south (toward the equator), it gets warmer. Which
leaves North as the region of air, home of the icy winds of winter. (These last
two associations would be reversed for cultures in the southern hemisphere, for
whom north is the direction of the warm equatorial region, and south is the land
of ice.)

4. HYPERBOREAN: In fact, an ancient name for the British Isles was “Hyperboria”,
which literally means “behind the north wind”, thus associating north and wind
(air) once more. The inhabitants were themselves called “Hyperborians”, and the
phrase “at the back of the north wind” (the title of one of George MacDonald’s
faery romances) is still current. Of all the winds of the compass, it is
unquestionably the north wind (Boreas), bringer of winter, which is perceived as
the strongest and most influential (cf. Robert Grave’s goddess fantasy “Watch
the North Wind Rise”). You don’t hear too much about the other three cardinal

5. SEASONAL: Many occultists associate the four seasons with the four cardinal
points, as well. Hence, winter = north, spring = east, summer = south, and
autumn = west. (To be precise, it is the solstice and equinox points which
align with the cardinal points.) Again, in most folklore, winter is associated
with air and wind, as the icy blasts that usher in the season. In spring, it is
the earth which arrests our attention, with its sudden riot of blooms and
greenery. Again, south relates to summer, the hottest season (fire), and west
relates to autumn.

6. DIURNAL: Occultists also often associate the cardinal points of a single day
to the four compass points. Thus, midnight = north, sunrise = east, noon =
south, and sunset = west. (Please note that we are talking about TRUE midnight
and TRUE noon here, the points halfway between sunset and sunrise, and between
sunrise and sunset, respectively.) These associate nicely with the seasonal
attributes just discussed. It is easy to see why sunrise should equate to east,
and sunset to west. And, once again, from the perspective of the British Isles,
the sun rises over land (earth) and sets over the ocean (water). South is
related to noon because it is the moment of greatest heat (fire). Leaving the
“invisible” element of air to be associated with the sun’s invisibility, at

7. MYTHOLOGICAL: In Celtic mythology, north is invariably associated with air.
The pre-Christian Irish gods and goddesses, the Tuatha De Danann, were “airy”
faeries (later versions came equipped with wings, relating them to sylphs). The
Book of Conquests states their original home was in the north, “at the back of
the north wind”. And when they came to Ireland, they came in ships, THROUGH THE
UPPER AIR (!), settling on the mountaintop. (It has always struck me as odd
that some modern writers see mountains as a symbol of earth. The crucial
symbolism of the mountain is its height, rising into the air, touching the sky.
Virtually all Eastern traditions associate mountains, favorite abodes of gurus,
with air. A CAVE would be a better symbol of earth than a mountain.) In Welsh
mythology, too, Math the Ancient, chief god of Gwynedd (or NORTH Wales), is
specifically associated with wind, which can carry people’s thoughts to him.

8. YIN/YANG: Many occultists believe that the four elements have yin/yang
connections. Both air and fire are seen as masculine, while earth and water are
seen as feminine. If air is associated with the north point of the magic
circle, and earth is east, then one achieves a yin/yang alternation as one
circumambulates the circle. As one passes the cardinal points of east, south,
west, and north, one passes feminine, masculine, feminine, masculine energies.
This alternating flux of plus/minus, push/pull, masculine/feminine, is the very
pulse of the universe, considered of great importance by most occultists. That
it was equally important to our ancestors is evidenced by standing stones in the
British Isles. At sites like the Kennet Avenue of Braga, the tall, slender,
masculine, phallic stones alternate precisely with the shorter, diamond-shaped
yoni stones.

9. GENERATOR: This argument flows out of the previous one. Practicing magicians
often think of the magic circle as a kind of psychic generator. Witches in
particular like to perform circle dances to “raise the cone of power”. Hand in
hand, and alternating man and woman, they dance clockwise (deosil) around the
circle, moving faster and faster until the power is released. This model has an
uncanny resemblance to an electrical generator, as man and woman alternately
pass each of the four “poles” of the magic circle. These poles themselves MUST
alternate between plus and minus if power is to be raised. This means that if
the masculine fire is in the south, then the masculine air MUST be in the north.
If the feminine water is in the west, then the feminine earth MUST be in the
east. If any adjacent pair were switched, the generator would stop dead.

10. MASCULINE/FEMININE AXIS: When you look at a typical map, north (the cardinal
direction) is at the top. Any north-south road is a vertical line, and any
east-west road is a horizontal line. Likewise, a “map” of a magic circle makes
the vertical north-south axis masculine (with air and fire), while the
horizontal east-west axis is feminine (earth and water). This makes logical
sense. When we look at the horizon of the earth, we see a horizontal line.
Water also seeks a horizontal plane. Feminine elements, considered “passive”,
have a natural tendency to “lay down”. Fire, on the other hand, always assumes
an erect or vertical position. Air, too, can rise upward, as earth and water
cannot. Masculine elements, being “active”, have a natural tendency to “stand

11. ALTAR TOOLS: In modern Witchcraft, there are four principal altar tools, the
same four tools shown on the Tarot card, the Magician. They also correspond to
the four Tarot suits, the four ancient treasures of Ireland, and the four
“hallows” of Arthurian legend. And, like the four elements, two of them are
feminine and two of them are masculine. The pentacle is a shallow dish
inscribed with a pentagram, representing earth, and is here placed in the east.
The womb-shaped chalice, symbolizing water, is placed in the west. They form
the horizontal feminine axis. The phallic-shaped wand, representing fire, is
placed in the south. And the equally phallic-shaped athame is placed in the
north. They form the vertical masculine axis. (The gender associations of cup
and blade are especially emphasized in the ritual blessing of wine.)

12. AXIS SYMBOLISM: In nearly every culture, the vertical line is a symbol of
yang, or masculine energy. The horizontal line is yin, feminine energy. When
the vertical masculine line penetrates the horizontal feminine line, forming the
ancient Pagan symbol of the equal-armed cross, it becomes a symbol of life, and
life-force. Place a circle around it or on it, and you have a circle-cross or
“Celtic” cross, symbol of everlasting life. (Please note the importance of the
EQUAL-armed cross. If one arm is longer or shorter, then the four elements are
out of balance. The Christian or “Roman” cross, for example, has an extended
southern arm. And many historians have commented on Christianity’s excess of
“fire” or zeal. Some versions actually show a shortened northern arm,
indicating a dearth of “air” or intellectual qualities.)

13. ASTROLOGICAL: The astrological year is divided into four equal quadrants,
each beginning at a solstice or equinox. And each quadrant is governed by one of
the four elements. Which element can be discovered by examining the exact MID-
POINT of the quadrant. For example, the first quadrant, beginning at the winter
solstice (north) is governed by air, which rules 15 degrees Aquarius, symbolized
by the Man or Spirit. The second quadrant, beginning at the spring equinox
(east) is governed by earth, which rules 15 degrees Taurus, the Bull. The third
quadrant, beginning at the summer solstice (south) is governed by fire, which
rules 15 degrees Leo, the Lion. And the fourth quadrant, beginning at the fall
equinox (west) is governed by water, which rules 15 degrees Scorpio, here
symbolized by the Eagle. Thus, north, east, south and west correspond to air,
earth, fire, and water, and to man, bull, lion, and eagle, respectively. If the
last four symbols seem familiar, it is because they represent the four elemental
power points of the astrological year, and their symbols appear in the four
corners of the Tarot cards, the World and the Wheel of Fortune. (The same
figures were later adopted by Christians as symbols of the four gospel writers,
Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John.)

If those are the arguments in favor of Air-in-the-North, where are the counter-
arguments in favor of Earth-in-the-North? Surprisingly, I’ve heard very few.
The most common by far is “But we’ve always done it this way.” Not too
convincing. However, no matter HOW persuasive my arguments may be, many have
countered that magic doesn’t lend itself to rational arguments. It’s what FEELS
right that counts. True. And there’s no denying that many practitioners do
just fine with earth in the north. Granted. Still, if they’ve never tried it
the other way, how would they really know?

My challenge to my fellow practitioners then is this: give Air-in-the-North a
shot. Just try it on for size. See what it feels like. And not for just a
single ritual. It’ll take several tries just to overcome your habitual ritual
mindset. And nothing is as habitual as ritual! So in order to give this a fair
shake, you’ll have to do a whole series of rituals with air in the north. And
go into it with an open mind. Like all magic, if you decide ahead of time it
won’t work, it won’t. Then, once you’ve tried it, compare it to your old method.
Ask yourself what’s different, if it worked any better, and why or why not. And
let me know. I’d enjoy hearing about your experiences.